GSM technology is the foundation for most mobile phones. Its development began in the early 1970s when researchers at Bell Laboratories developed a cell-based mobile radio system. A standardization group was formed in 1982 to create a European mobile phone standard. Today, GSM is the world’s most widely used telecommunications standard. It also affects ink types, drying times, and paper thickness.
GSM radio transmissions use a base station, or BTS. This device is a cell tower equipped with radio units that transmit and receive mobile signals at specific frequencies. Each cell has a different ARFCN, or Absolute Radio Frequency Channel Number. A base station can have many sectors. Each sector is assigned an ARFCN. Because frequency spectrum is limited, operators must plan their re-use carefully. This is done to avoid adjacent channel and co-channel interference.
The next stage in a GSM network is a base station controller. This device is the central component of a group of BTSs. It manages radio resources, controls handover among BTSs, and allocates channels to mobiles. It is also responsible for the communication between BTSs, which is called the “Um” interface. It is important to note that the two devices work together to make the system operate.
GSM uses two types of communication techniques: time-division multiple access (FDMA) and frequency-division multiple access (TDMA). TDMA divides bandwidth by frequency bands. The TDMA method assigns a certain channel to different subscribers. Each user is assigned a particular time slot, which is known as the “Guard” band. For example, a cell in a city may have multiple radio channels, while a cell in a metro area may have a single antenna.
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